Assay

Alyssa BentzAlyssa Bentz, Wells Fargo Historian, gives this update “from the field.” (CR)

Being I recently had the chance to take a road trip up to Columbia State Historic Park, a preserved gold rush town nestled in the Sierra foothills. The “Gem of the Southern Mines” as it has since been called, Columbia was in the heart of gold mining country in the 1850s. From 1850-1870 miners found an estimated billion dollars of gold (at today’s values,) and much of that gold left town in a Wells Fargo treasure box.

Wells Fargo came to Columbia in 1853. A Prussian immigrant named William Daegener managed the Wells Fargo office from inside the American Hotel. Fires posed a constant threat to many mining towns filled with closely packed wooden buildings. The hotel (and Wells Fargo office) burned down in 1854 and 1857. Daegener wasn’t too thrilled with the idea of having to save the Wells Fargo records from fire again, so he set about building a two-story brick building with fire-proof iron shutters. The new Wells Fargo express office opened in 1858, and is still standing and open for visitors in Columbia today.

Street scene, Columbia, Calif. (Photo by Allyssa Bentz)

Street scene, Columbia, Calif. (Photo by Allyssa Bentz)

The office in Columbia acted as a business and social hub. Stagecoaches from the river city of Stockton stopped at the office, delivering the latest newspapers, letters, and packages. Customers came to the Wells Fargo office to make deposits into the company safe and send convenient bank drafts and checks to family and businesses far away.

Wells Fargo & Co's Express office in Columbia, Calif. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Wells Fargo & Co’s Express office in Columbia, Calif. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Agent Daegener also bought gold dust from nearby miners, an important service as many could not go far from their claims to convert gold dust into gold coin. Not all gold dust was equal. Gold found from claims feet apart could vary greatly in quality. Daegener had to carefully value (or assay) customers’ dust and follow the instructions sent by Wells Fargo Superintendent J. M. Vansyckle to “Pay no more for dust than it is worth, nor make no arrangements with anyone to pay less than it is worth. This is the only true motto to do any kind of business on.” This standard of business stood in contrast to the practices of some assayers who would take advantage of their customers’ desperation to sell by paying less for gold dust than it was worth.

Display at Wells Fargo office in Columbia, Calif. (Photo by Allyssa Bentz)

Display at Wells Fargo office in Columbia, Calif. (Photo by Allyssa Bentz)

In 1860, Daegener expanded his assay operations by buying a furnace and other equipment. He began using the back of the Wells Fargo express office as his assay room. After a fire (possibly caused by his assay work) he built a separate space for his assay work outside of the Wells Fargo building that also served as his family home.

William A. Daegner, Wells Fargo Agent in Columbia, Calif. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

William A. Daegner, Wells Fargo Agent in Columbia, Calif. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Most assay rooms have disappeared with time, but Daegener’s assay room still exists in Columbia.

Reading instructions on assaying are a bit like reading through the steps of a science experiment. The steps might not sound so exciting on paper, but in action it can be mesmerizing. Looking at the assay room in Columbia, I could almost imagine Daegener bending over the furnace or pouring acid in a crucible. All that difficult, complicated work so that in the end he could ensure that miners got a fair price for their gold.

For the curious, here are the simplified steps of assaying:

  1. Melt the miner’s gold dust into a bar. It takes a lot of heat to melt gold (1,948⁰ F, about 4 times hotter than your kitchen oven) so a good furnace is essential.
  2. Cut chips from the opposite corners and weigh on precision scales. The scales Wells Fargo sent Daegener in 1857 from Howard & Davis in Boston are still on display in Columbia.
  3. Heat these chips in a bone ash cupel (a small dish), which absorbs ordinary metals.
  4. Add nitric acid to dissolve silver and other impurities, leaving pure gold.
  5. Take that pure gold back to those precision scales and weigh again.
  6. Do math. Divide the final weight of the gold by the original weight to get the percentage of gold in the original. If you started with one ounce and after burning off the impurities you had ½ an ounce, then your original gold dust was 50% pure.
Assay room in Columbia, Calif. (Photo by Allyssa Bentz)

Assay room in Columbia, Calif. (Photo by Allyssa Bentz)

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Working dog

Tomorrow is Bring Your Dog to Work Day… but what sort of work will they really do? Wells Fargo’s Jack the Dog was immortalized by a photograph at San Francisco’s Midwinter Fair in 1893 and became an icon of security and service for the company. In 1972 a different sort of working dog named Cola Beers visited Wells Fargo to open a bank account. From Arcata, California, Cola used the account to save earned money and pay for expenses at dog shows.

Wells Fargo Bank teller Fran DeBow returns passbook to her canine customer Cola Beers, 1972. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Wells Fargo Bank teller Fran DeBow returns passbook to her canine customer Cola Beers, 1972. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives

Other dogs usually just visit for the biscuits tellers keep on hand.

Wells Fargo Bank teller provides a tasty treat to a visiting dog. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Wells Fargo Bank teller provides a tasty treat to a visiting dog. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Wells Fargo drive-up teller keeps dog biscuits on hand for her regular canine customers, 1976. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Wells Fargo drive-up teller keeps dog biscuits on hand for her regular canine customers, 1976. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

 

First National Bank of Oregon drive-up customer receives a dog biscuit treat from the bank teller. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

First National Bank of Oregon drive-up customer receives a dog biscuit treat from the bank teller. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

 

On a side note, Cola wasn’t the only working animal with a bank account in Wells Fargo history. In 1963, Calico, the world’s largest spotted mule, visited the Wells Fargo office in Pacifica, California to deposit money earned for appearances at fairs, livestock shows and other enterprises.

Calico, the world’s largest spotted mule, visiting Wells Fargo Bank, 1963. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Calico, the world’s largest spotted mule, visiting Wells Fargo Bank, 1963. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

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15 years of innovation

June 24, 2015, is the 15th anniversary of the Commercial Electronic Office® (CEO®) portal. Wells Fargo launched the CEO portal in 2000, the first major financial services company to offer a secure, single sign-on portal, for mid-sized companies and large corporations to access and perform a wide range of commercial banking functions.

Wells Fargo CEO portal, 2000 (Wells Fargo Bank)

Wells Fargo CEO portal, 2000 (Wells Fargo Bank)

At Wells Fargo, there is a tradition of using the most up-to-date technology to help customers succeed financially—stagecoach, telegraph, and internet banking services. Early in the bank’s history, Wells Fargo offered commercial loans, to help finance the Overland Stage Line, Nevada’s Comstock mining businesses, railroads and other firms.

Wells Fargo began numbering commercial accounts in the mid-1950s, “the first step toward applying electronics to our bookkeeping.” Wholesale Banking operations expanded to 40 locations in 21 states by 1998, and in 2000 there were 292 offices.

Steve Ellis
Steve Ellis, now executive vice president and group head of the Wells Fargo Wholesale Services Group, is a talented maverick within Wells Fargo. With hair reaching down to his collar, Ellis abandoned suits for jeans years before business casual became the norm. Back in 1999, Ellis saw that the internet could reshape financial services and saw the future in teaming up with young, viable dot-coms, to become an online resource for the many financial activities that businesses needed.

Steve Ellis, 2004 (Wells Fargo Bank)

Steve Ellis, 2004 (Wells Fargo Bank)

In 2000, the dot-com boom was ending; and even if making everyday purchases on the Web hadn’t caught on, online business had. New applications and services would make banking easier and more secure for customers. Ellis began selling the idea that Wells Fargo needed to rethink how to work with business customers and to create a powerful internet team for Wholesale Banking. Mostly, this new model had to be fast. Wells Fargo’s top brass decided that Ellis was onto something, and that he was the guy to make it happen.

Commercial Electronic Office
Over the last 15 years, Wells Fargo has seen dramatic changes in technology and the way our customers do business. From the beginning, the goal was to make banking simpler for customers, to make it faster and easier for them to do business through the CEO portal. More recently, mobile technology has changed the way our customers work, and Wells Fargo launched the CEO Mobile service in 2007—the first major U.S. bank to offer a mobile app for corporate, commercial, and institutional customers. Today, Wells Fargo offers iPhone and Android versions of the CEO Mobile app and is committed to delivering mobile innovations that benefit customers.

Wells Fargo CEO Portal demo for tablet. (Wells Fargo Bank)

Wells Fargo CEO Portal demo for tablet (Wells Fargo Bank)

Businesses today are much more global than they were 15 years ago. The CEO portal and CEO Mobile let customers connect to their banking services worldwide.

Today, a large share of Wells Fargo’s Wholesale Banking customers use the CEO portal. The percentage of active mobile users has grown by more than 97 percent in the past year— and by more than 1,200 percent since 2010! There are more than 90 applications available through the CEO portal, including fourteen services through the CEO Mobile service.

Just imagine what’s next!

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Father’s Day, 2015

Well, it’s already Father’s Day—come and gone. I got my usual gift from the kids.

In the Corporate Archives at Wells Fargo History.com, we have many, many images of bankers through the years, nattily clad in executive neckwear. Like these:

Wells Fargo neckties over time (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Wells Fargo neckties over time (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

 

I can honestly say, Father’s Day is one of my favorite days of the year. And I will never have too many ties!

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Travelers Code Book and the Telegraph

On June 20, 1840, the telegraph was patented, changing the way we communicate forever. However, it took some time for that change to connect our coasts. Because the telegraph required special lines to be run in order for its transmissions to be sent and received, covering the full distance from St. Louis to San Francisco was a very large task indeed. Therefore it is no surprise that the transcontinental telegraph line was not completed until 1861, nine years after Wells Fargo was founded and thirteen years after the discovery of gold in California. Immediately upon completion, Wells Fargo, and the general population, began using telegraphs to send information across the country. The Pony Express, previously the fastest way to send a message, stopped operations a mere two days later.

Telegraph key and Travelers Code book

Telegraph key and Wells Fargo & Company Express Travelers Code book in the Minneapolis History Museum.

While this was an excellent step forward for keeping in touch, it was also quite expensive, and not a very secure way to send a message. In order to address both issues, Traveler’s Code Books were developed. The codes consisted of short strings of letters or words with much longer or more complicated meanings. One set of Traveler’s Code books was used by telegraphers to send messages on behalf of the general public. Others were specific to companies and industries. Imagine you were a Wells Fargo Agent who wished to send a message between bank locations that read, “10,000 gold dollars sent by train.” Because that message could be easily intercepted, the potential for robbery was high. But when placed into code that message would read as nonsense, “Norki Nair Gydar Plata.” And the risk of robbery went down considerably.

Play Travelogue on your computer or phone, and send a coded message of your own!

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Wells Fargo Day at PPIE

Visitors from all over the world visited San Francisco in 1915, as the city hosted the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (PPIE). Wells Fargo hosted its own space at the Exposition, providing financial services as well as an historical exhibit. “Wells Fargo Day” was on June 15 that year, and what a day we had.

Marching band of Wells Fargo Expressmen (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Marching band of Wells Fargo Expressmen (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

There was a parade, with a stagecoach and a marching band of Wells fargo Expressmen in full work gear. The procession also featured:

a steamboat float;

Steamboat float in Wells Fargo Day Parade at PPIE, 1915 (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Steamboat float in Wells Fargo Day Parade at PPIE, 1915 (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

a five-car locomotive with real smoke;

Fargo Flyer railroad float at PPIE (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Fargo Flyer railroad float at PPIE (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

decorated motor trucks and express wagons;

Parade-ready Wells Fargo motor trucks and express wagons (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Parade-ready Wells Fargo motor trucks and express wagons (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

and a dog sled team.

Dogsled entry in Wells Fargo Day Parade at PPIE, 1915 (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Dogsled entry in Wells Fargo Day Parade at PPIE, 1915 (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

On Monday June 15, 2015, the Wells Fargo History Museum in San Francisco will celebrate the centennial of Wells Fargo Day with additional features to the PPIE exhibit that opened in February. “Play like it’s 1915” will re-create PPIE’s “Joy Zone,” with carnival games and contests of luck and skill. Visitors will receive a replica of the ribbon handed out to visitors in 1915.

It will be fun—a truly historic day!

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The Vulture Mine

Have you ever experienced a real ghost town?  I did recently when I visited the Vulture Mine, near the town of Wickenburg, AZ.  Approximately 70 miles northwest of Phoenix, Vulture sits surrounded by barren desert.  The old establishment once held one of the most productive gold mines in Arizona history and housed approximately 5,000 occupants.

 

Taken from the front of the Assay Building in order to see the entrance of the basement where the gold was kept safely before being transported to the San Francisco Mint. (Image from the author's collection)

Taken from the front of the Assay Building in order to see the entrance of the basement where the gold was kept safely before being transported to the San Francisco Mint. (Image from the author’s collection)

Vulture Mine was discovered in 1863 when Henry Wickenburg found a quartz deposit containing gold.  Throughout the years, it was passed on to different owners until it finally closed in 1942 as a war effort.  The mine was privately owned for many years after and offered walking tours to visitors.  Recently purchased by private investors, Vulture is once again a working mine with limited tours to those interested in Arizona mining history.

 

“The Hanging Tree” – a 200+ year old Ironwood tree.  To the right – The ruins of Henry Wickenburg’s home that was constructed in 1864 and made from stone and adobe. (Image from the author's collection)

“The Hanging Tree” – a 200+ year old Ironwood tree. To the right – The ruins of Henry Wickenburg’s home that was constructed in 1864 and made from stone and adobe. (Image from the author’s collections)

When the working stops – old buildings, rubble, stripped cars, old mining and pipe construction tools surround the area where the town used to be.  The only decent shade in the vicinity is a two hundred year old ironwood tree, dubbed the “hanging tree” where approximately 18 unlucky souls lost their lives due to “high-grading” (making off with another’s ore).  The overall eerie ambiance was captured in the horror movie, The Graves and was the inspiration for the song “Skull City Mine” by The Mission Creeps.  In 2010, the mine got mainstream attention when the Travel Channel’s Ghost Adventures filmed a segment there for their fourth season.

 

The Assay Building – constructed in 1884 out of stone, adobe, metal and concrete.  The back entrance door is where stagecoaches and Wells Fargo employees loaded gold bars into treasure boxes. (Image from the author's collection)

The Assay Building – constructed in 1884 out of stone, adobe, metal and concrete. The back entrance door is where stagecoaches and Wells Fargo employees loaded gold bars into treasure boxes. (Image from the author’s collection)

Ghosts aside, I was more interested in the scattered infrastructures like the ruins of Vulture City’s Post Office, Vulture Saloon, and Henry Wickenburg’s original home.  The one building I was particularly interested in was the Assay Building.  Built in 1884, miners brought their minerals to be tested and exchanged for currency.  Once melted down to bars, they were put into a small basement room before being shipped.  The entrance to this basement can be seen from the back of the building where gold was transferred to and from stagecoaches, some carrying Wells Fargo employees.

 

In the Theobald book, Wells Fargo in Arizona Territory, Edward E. Kirkland (1854-1916) is the sole express man listed for Vulture.  He arrived from Missouri in 1876 and later settled in Vulture where he opened a Wells, Fargo & Co. Express office in his mercantile store from 1881 to 1883.  This short time period could be due to the fact that Wells Fargo had an on and off presence at the mine.  The Weekly Phoenix Herald stated in October of 1882:  “Wells, Fargo & Co. have refused to carry money for the Vulture Co. on account of risk from highwaymen.”  The following week, the paper stated:  “Mr. Jillson, Wells, Fargo & Co’s accommodating agent here, informs us that we were misinformed with regard to his company carrying currency and specie to Vulture.”  However, in 1885, The Phoenix Gazette stated that E. E. Kirkland (the same as mentioned before) and A. Leonard Meyer (Phoenix agent) created “The Kirkland and Meyer Express Co.” to ensure shipments to Vulture and Phoenix after Wells Fargo ceased shipments again after abundant stagecoach robberies.  The new company promised to deliver bullion to the Wells Fargo agency in Phoenix, from which it would be shipped on to the San Francisco Mint.

 

From the time Henry Wickenburg laid claim up to 1942, it is estimated that the mine produced more than 200 million dollars’ worth of gold and silver.  This kind of publicity spread and attracted new residents as well as bandits during operation.  There was a strong need for a reliable express company in Vulture City, but the desolate outskirts made it dangerous for Stagecoaches.  Daring highwaymen between Vulture and Phoenix caused temporary halts of all shipments from Wells Fargo.  Cash rewards were posted and special agents were sent to investigate before business resumed with the Arizona Stage and Rail Road Companies up until WWI when the government nationalized express shipping.

 

According to the tour I received, the mine has a bright future in mining and as well as keeping the history alive.  With a promise like that, the trip was well worth the miles.

 

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Wells Fargo Messenger Artist Edward Hopper

By the early 1900s, Wells Fargo had become a global company with nationwide and overseas operations. How could Wells Fargo employees around the country receive company news, policies, and information? The solution came in the form of a company-wide monthly magazine called the Wells Fargo Messenger, published between September 1912 and June 1918.

The outside of the magazine featured colorful covers that showed the transportation of the day, U. S. cities and landscapes, and a variety of other topics. By publishing in New York City, the editors drew on the talents of many commercial artists including Earl Horter and Edward Hopper.  Early in his career, Hopper supported himself by illustrating several issues of the Wells Fargo Messenger between 1915 and 1918.

(Wells Fargo Messenger, December 1916)         (Wells Fargo Messenger, April 1916)

(Wells Fargo Messenger, December 1916)                             (Wells Fargo Messenger, April 1916)

Hopper’s art appeared in advertisements, sketches, and covers of the Wells Fargo Messenger. Wells Fargo employees were encouraged to contribute to the Messenger “almost anything that is of interest to you in your work is of interest to this magazine.” Hopper illustrated one story written by Wells Fargo Agent Millard of Lima City, Wisconsin. Other sketches showed the importance of Wells Fargo’s express to New York’s fashion industry and a child who received a package on Christmas Day.

(Wells Fargo Messenger, March 1918)       (Wells Fargo Messenger, April 1918)

(Wells Fargo Messenger, March 1918)                   (Wells Fargo Messenger, April 1918)

When the United States entered World War I in April 1917, the Wells Fargo Messenger dedicated many of its articles and stories to America’s mobilization for war.  Hopper’s subject matter focused on a nation going to war. We see such illustrations as an employee saying good-bye to his Wells Fargo office before going off to war, another employee planting a home garden, and people lined up to purchase thrift cards and war savings stamps to support the war effort.

(Wells Fargo Messenger, February 1918)(Wells Fargo Messenger, June 1917)

(Wells Fargo Messenger, February 1918)                    (Wells Fargo Messenger, June 1917)

Advertisements in the Messenger included artwork by Edward Hopper. The February 1918 issue had a Hopper illustration that promoted Wells Fargo’s money orders, traveler’s checks, and checking accounts for our troops in France. One of the most persuasive ads encouraged employees to join the American Red Cross through its holiday member drive in December 1917. Wells Fargo wagons displayed the Red Cross ad that Hopper illustrated. Edward Hopper and other artists added illustrations to the Wells Fargo Messenger magazine that reached thousands of employees of Wells Fargo’s express business and kept Wells Fargo’s workforce updated on company and industry news.

Wagon banner (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Wagon banner (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

 

 

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Wells Fargo is proud to celebrate Pride

June is here and that means it’s LGBT Pride month.

The stagecoach & team members at Long Beach Pride, previous year

The stagecoach & team members at Long Beach Pride, previous year

Wells Fargo participates in over 50 Pride celebrations each year supporting many LGBT organizations including GLSEN and the Trevor Project. Our team members are proud to work together with Wells Fargo’s LGBT customers to help them reach their financial goals.  Working together with ALL communities and customers is reflected in our message today that “Together is Beautiful.”

Hosting Blake Skjellerup, Olympic speed skater on our stagecoach in the 2014 Phoenix Pride parade

Hosting Blake Skjellerup, Olympic speed skater on our stagecoach in the 2014 Phoenix Pride parade

The stagecoach has already stopped by a few Pride events and will be going to many more. Here is the most current schedule of Pride events, but the full stagecoach schedule is updated weekly here.

Days Date City State Event Name Type
Sun Mar 29 Lake Worth FL PrideFest of the Palm Beaches Parade
Sun Apr 12 Phoenix AZ PRIDE Parade Parade
Sun May 17 Long Beach CA Long Beach Pride Parade
Sat Jun 6 Sacramento CA Sacramento PRIDE Parade & Festival Parade
Sun Jun 7 Ashbury Park NJ 21st Annual GLBT Pride Celebration Parade
Sun Jun 7 Salt Lake City UT Utah Pride Festival Parade
Sat Jun 13 Albuquerque NM 2015 Albuquerque Pride Festival Parade Parade
Sat Jun 13 Boston MA Boston Pride Parade Festival Coach on Display
Sat Jun 13 Boston MA Boston Pride Parade Parade
Sun Jun 14 Des Moines IA Capital City PRIDE Parade
Sun Jun 14 Los Angeles CA Los Angeles Pride Parade
Sun Jun 14 Portland OR Pride Parade Parade
Sat Jun 20 Wilton Manors FL Stonewall Pride Festival Parade
Sun Jun 21 Denver CO 2015 Denver PrideFest Parade
Sat Jun 27 St. Petersburg FL St. Petersburg Pride Parade Parade
Sun Jun 28 Minneapolis MN Twin Cities PRIDE Festival Parade
Sun Jun 28 New York NY NYC Pride Parade
Sun Jun 28 St .Louis MO St. Louis Pridefest Parade Parade
Sat July 18 San Diego CA San Diego LGBT Pride Parade Parade
Sun Aug 16 Charlotte NC Charlotte Pride Parade
Sat Oct 10 Orlando FL Come Out with Pride Parade
Sun Oct 11 Atlanta GA Atlanta PRIDE Parade

We hope to see you at your local Pride event! If you see us, share your photos and tell us where you are with #stagecoach

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Checks with optional confetti

I love everything about presentation checks. Giving or receiving an unwieldy oversize check for a worthy cause is a bright festivity that requires no wordy explanation. Modern conveniences such as Wells Fargo SurePay and Online Bill Pay may lessen the frequency of my own personal check writing, but I always see a place in this world for huge presentation checks with optional confetti.

I especially love that oversize presentation checks can be a legal negotiable instrument that instructs a transfer of funds, as is anything with the required information. Over the years, Wells Fargo has received both oversize and silly checks for cashing and deposit.

Business students in a fraternity painted a check for deposit on a closet door, 1970. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Business students in a fraternity painted a check for deposit on a closet door, 1970. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Wells Fargo’s Foster Briggs holds a watermelon that carries all the information needed to make it a negotiable item, 1974. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Wells Fargo’s Foster Briggs holds a watermelon that carries all the information needed to make it a negotiable item, 1974. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

First National Bank of Oregon tellers Carol Smith and Grant Jennings hold up a check that the customer eventually received, hand-cancelled, along with his regular monthly statement, 1967. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

First National Bank of Oregon tellers Carol Smith and Grant Jennings hold up a check that the customer eventually received, hand-cancelled, along with his regular monthly statement, 1967. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Wells Fargo’s Teresita DeGuzman and Alice Woo hold up an oversize check for deposit, 1977. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

Wells Fargo’s Teresita DeGuzman and Alice Woo hold up an oversize check for deposit, 1977. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

A check too big for the Wells Fargo Express Stop, from the Wells Fargo Banker, 1983. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

A check too big for the Wells Fargo Express Stop, from the Wells Fargo Banker, 1983. (Wells Fargo Corporate Archives)

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